The number of weevils ranged from 1 to 184 larvae per stalk among all the stalks dissected for the study. The Sunflower stem weevil is only known to occur in the United States of America. The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte), infests wild and cultivated sunflowers in Colorado, Texas, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota (Schulz 1978; Charlet 1983). Check closely for signs of Charcoal rot or any lodging of sunflowers. The red seed weevil is the more common of the two weevils. The gardener oftentimes must deal with a variety of pests from insects to animals and birds. This weevil causes very little damage. Adult weevils are small (0.5 cm) and brown with … Helianthus. Life Cycle. The wasp larva, still contained within its living host, also enters diapause. Both cause damage to the stalk of the plant as they feed on the pith. Sometimes the damage may be confused with the sunflower stem weevil. • Controlling sunflower stem weevil helps prevent transmission of Phoma black stem disease Key pests controlled • Banded sunflower moth • Seed weevil (adult) Refer to label for a complete list of insects. As with other cultivated crops that are harvested at the field scale, some seed may escape harvest, mostly from shattering, particularly when infected with sclerotinia. For the formation of 20 centners / ha of seeds, the plants need 56–58 kg / ha of nitrogen, 22 kg / ha of phosphorus, and 30 kg / ha of potassium. Bacterial stalk rot; Premature ripening of stalks and poor filling of heads. Adult sunflower stem weevils feed on foliage, which is usually not severe enough to require insecticide applications. Distribution of Sunflower Insect Pests . Phoma has been implicated as one of the major biotic causes of premature … Adult feeding on stem and leaf tissue produces negligible effects on plants, but larval … Larvae and pupae are similar in appearance to those of C. adspersus, but tend to be smaller and more yellowish in coloration. Eggs are laid in the head. Adults feed on leaf margins during the day & larvae over leaf surface at night Overwinter as adults in soil Eggs laid on stem or underside of leaves . Sunflower takes out nitrogen and phosphorus in large quantities in comparison to other crops, and has no equal in terms of potassium use. Larvae feed, develop, and overwinter in the stem. The feeding and excavation of the stalk by larvae and adults is what causes the weakening and breaking of the sunflower stalk. The adult sunflower stem weevil is about 5 mm (0.2 in) long and a grayish-brown color with irregular whitish markings. However, since the pathogen Phoma macdonaldii Boerma has been isolated from adults they are highly suspected of vectoring Phoma black stem disease in sunflower fields. The black sunflower stem weevil (Apion) is black and about 1/10 inch long. Occasionally, western Kansas, eastern Colorado, and North and South Dakota experience severe losses due to this pest. Direct sprays at adult weevils when there is 1 adult per plant. Our objective was to determine whether altered planting periods could reduce weevil densities in confection and oilseed sunflower in the central High Plains production region. banded sunflower moth, sunflower stem weevil, sunflower moth, sunflower beetle & red sunflower seed weevil . Host plants are still required for adult feeding and oviposition. The sunflower stem weevil is a common pest, laying its eggs in the sunflower's stem. The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has attacked cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus Linnaeus (Asteraceae), throughout its history in North America (Charlet et al., 1997).A single generation of weevils emerges in late spring each year. The red weevil adults are 0.1 to 0.12 inch long and the gray weevils are slightly larger. We conducted surveys of weevil natural enemy diversity and abundance … The black sunflower stem weevil is a small, shiny black weevil about 2.5 mm (1/10 inches) long from the base of its globose body to the end of its curved snout. The damage includes dangling seed heads and stems that looked like soda straws. Stem Weevil Biology . Larvae are cream colored and C-shaped and grub-like in appearance. The larvae use the stem for feeding and overwintering. However, early planting may increase damage by the banded sunflower moth and the sunflower stem weevil. Sunflower, Helianthus annuus, is an herbaceous annual plant in the family Asteraceae, grown for its seeds. The sunflower stem weevil larval counts indicated very heavy stem weevil pressure in 2002 at Akron with the mean density ranging from 20 to 60 larvae per stalk among the germplasm tested. Lodging after flowering, heads with soft rot. The sunflower stem weevil’s larvae will chew a tunnel in the stalk on their way to the ground where they will pupate. Stem weevil larvae can cause serious stalk breakage. It was first observed in Saskatchewan in a sunflower test plot near Carnduff, in August 1984 (unpublished data). Sunflower Head Clipping Weevil - Joe Boggs Jul 7, 2020. maggot (Strauzia longipennis), and the long-horned sunflower. A robust brown and white spotted snout beetle found on the stem and in leaf axils. Drills egg hole in stem in which it lays its egg. Both weevils have pronounced ‘snouts' that make them recognizable. egg larvae adult . Cocklebur weevil The adult weevil is 1/4 to 3/8 inch long and is red with black spots. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. By the winter, the host larva is fully developed and enters diapause in a chamber near the base of the plant. The larva, a white legless larva, burrows in the stem pith. References: Cranshaw, W. (2004). Cylindrocopturus adspersus, the sunflower stem weevil, is a species of true weevil in the beetle family Curculionidae. stem girdler (Dectes texanus). The peculiar handiwork of the sunflower headclipping weevil (Haplorhynchites aeneus) is just getting underway this season on purple coneflowers (Echinacea purpurea) and other members of the aster family (Asteraceae) in southwest Ohio. It is about 1/4 in. The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an economic pest of cultivated sunflower in both the northern and southern Great Plains of the United States and in Saskatchewan. Warrior II with Zeon Technology is a Restricted Use Pesticide. Reproductives were from a non-diapausing strain of C. adspersus. However the weevil will have multiple larvae per stem and the larvae will be smaller in size and C-shaped. Sunflower Beetle . It usually emergences in May and June and is most common in the High Plains. How to Treat Sunflower Pests. has 49 species Coevolutionary history with insects Majority of major pests specific to . When parasitizing the sunflower stem weevil, the female wasp lays a single egg into a first instar larva, which feeds just under the epidermis of the stem where it is within reach of the wasp's ovipositor. Description. Sunflower stem weevil; Stalks black on the outside, hollow inside with ink‑black, watery tissue breakdown. Adult weevils feed on leaves and lay eggs in stem. Stalks with gray basal discoloration and shredded internal tissue with small black flecks. Sunflower stem weevils (Cylindrocopturus adspersus) and at least 10 other species in the Curculionidae, including the red sunflower seed weevil (Smicronyx fulvus), the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis), and the plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar). It is found in North America, where the larvae tunnel in the stems of wild and cultivated sunflower plants. Sunflower stem weevil adults are about 0.19 inch long and grayish brown with white spots of various shapes on wing covers and thorax. Headclipper weevil on stalk Life Cycle: Adults emerge in mid-July and may be found on plants for 2 to 3 weeks. of new pests and diseases. black sunflower stem weevil (Apion occidentale), the sunflower. The head seems remarkably small and tapers toward the long snout. Host Plant Resistance Genus . • Sunflower beetle • Sunflower moth • Seed weevil (adult) • Stink bug spp. When weevil levels are high enough to weaken the stalk, they will lodge, due to increased stalk rot. Headclipper Weevil The adult sunflower Headclipping weevil (Haplorhynchites aeneus Boheman) is shiny black and about 5/16 inch long. of a sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte, a pest of cultivated sunflower. Both are easy to scout, identify and control. You can protect your farm from Sunflower stem weevil by regularly checking you property for the presence . Sunflower stem weevil – Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) 6 6 6 6 6 Sunflower maggot – Strauzia longipennis (Wiedenmann) 5 5 5, 6 Sunflower beetle – Zygogramma exclamationis (F.) 8 7, 8 8 8 8 7 8. They are creamy white with a small, brown head capsule, usually found in a C-shape in the sunflower stalk. The sunflower stem weevil also has been implicated in the epidemiology of sunflower pathogens, such as Phoma black stem (Phoma macdonaldii Boerma), and may predispose plants to infection by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, the causative agent of charcoal stem rot in sunflowers in the southern Great Plains. The damage includes dangling seed heads and stems that looked like soda straws. Damage by larvae of sunflower stem weevil causes serious stalk breakage when larval populations are large. The plant has large, broad lower leaves which are oval and arranged alternately on the stem and smaller, narrower upper leaves which are attached individually to the stem. How can I protect my farm from Sunflower stem weevils? Cultivated H. annuus as a Volunteer Weed. Sunflower stem weevils, Cylindrocopturus adspersus, occur throughout the Great Plains of the United States and in Saskatchewan. Classical biological control programs often target a pest's region of origin as a likely source for new biological control agents. Here, we use this approach to search for biological control agents of the sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte), an economically important pest of commercial sunflower. Sunflower stem weevil (adult) Apply esfenvalerate, beta-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin , chlorpyrifos, lambda/gamma-cyhalothrin, or zeta-cypermethrin products at the rates listed for sunflower moth. Root … The native weevil … Growers attempting to use planting dates to control any sunflower insect should be aware of all the insect pests they are likely to have, not just one species. Much more abundant in drouthy sites and years. The plant has a thick, hairy, erect stem which gives rise to a large flower head. Sunflower moth Sunflower stem weevil Sunflower long -horned beetle . As with some other insect pests, the area where sunflower stem weevil is a concern has shifted, moving from primary production areas of North Dakota and Minnesota southward into Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska. Sunflower stem weevil Cylindrocopturus adspersus. Females feed on pollen and nectar of flowering heads. Larvae are yellow and have been found among sunflower stem wee-vil larvae. Sunflowers offer the gardener both beautiful yellow flowers and seeds that have many uses. B5. More recently the sunflower midge and the seed weevil has been a problem for non-oil sunflower producers in the Red River valley. Overwintering chambers . Considerably weakening of the stem can occur when larval infestations reach 25 or more per stalk. Feeding on sunflower plant stems, the sunflower stem weevil is ⅛- to ¼-inch long, gray-brown with white spots and black antennae, snout and eyes. The large larvae leave a 1/4-inch tunnel in the pith as they burrow down to the roots. Adult red seed weevil This is the most common damaging insect group on flowering sunflower. Larvae are 0.25 inch long at maturity. However, people are not the only ones enjoying this plant. long. Chapter Eight: Stem and Twig Damagers - Twig-Feeding Beetles. A modified boll weevil diet for laboratory rearing of the larvae, and methods to collect the eggs and larvae are described. The snout, eyes, and antennae are black. The sunflower stem weevil also has been implicated in the transmission of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, which causes charcoal stem rot in sunflower in the southern Plains. The sunflower stem weevil infests stalks of cultivated sunflower and can cause lodging resulting in loss of the head prior to harvest. The peculiar handiwork of the sunflower headclipping weevil (Haplorhynchites aeneus) is just getting underway this season on purple coneflowers (Echinaceapurpurea) and other members of the aster family (Asteraceae) in southwest Ohio. Helianthus. Larvae feed inside stem and sometimes kill stem above infestation.